What, exactly, is Literary Fiction?
This month, I thought I would look at the subject of Literary Fiction. When I was on a Creative Writing MA course a few years ago, I canvassed opinion from lecturers, guest speakers, authors and fellow students on what they considered to be Literary Fiction.
“Oh, you know it when you read it,” was one helpful response.
“Anything that’s not a genre,” was another.
“Really good writing,” yet another.
“Writing where character is more important than plot,” said someone else and
“A thousand fewer copies sold,” said a disillusioned author.
Even a quick Google hardly comes up with anything more enlightening:
Anything that doesn’t fit into a genre; fiction that has literary merit; fiction that has value and merit in the social world; literary fiction is an artificial luxury brand that doesn’t sell.
Well, there you are!
I’ve certainly read so-called Literary Fiction that I have enjoyed and, equally, some that I haven’t, much the same as any genre fiction. But who’s to say that one type of writing has more merit than another? A very subjective judgement, I would suggest.
For me, and please feel free to disagree, I think that Literary Fiction has more fine detail than genre fiction: descriptions of places, people, thoughts and feelings, with less dialogue and less action than other genres. It also uses more literary devices than may be found in, say, crime thrillers or romances, such as metaphors, similes and imagery, and stories can often be allegories, incorporating one or more themes.
The Arts Council of England (ACE) suggests that literary fiction is definitely on a downward spiral: print sales of literary fiction are significantly below that of 12-13 years ago. And even fewer authors than before are making a full-time living from literary writing.
Sarah Crown, ACEs literature director: “It would have been obviously unnecessary in the early 90s for the Arts Council to consider making an intervention in the literary sector, but a lot has changed since then – the internet, Amazon, the demise of the net book agreement – ongoing changes which have had a massive effect.
“It’s a much more unforgiving ecosystem for authors of literary fiction today. We inevitably end up with a situation where the people best positioned to write literary fiction are those for whom making a living isn’t an imperative. That has an effect on the diversity of who is writing – we are losing voices, and we don’t want to be in that position.”
The report suggests that the decline in literary sales could be down to the recession happening at the same time as the rise of cheap and easy entertainment.
Some of the ideas that ACE is considering:
Among the “literary fiction” million sellers that I’ve read and enjoyed, you too probably, are The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, The Time Traveler’s Wife by Audrey Niffenegger and Life of Pi by Yann Martel. Last year’s bestselling literary novel was Kate Atkinson’s A God in Ruins, which sold 187,000 copies – roughly half the 360,000 copies of Elizabeth is Missing by Emma Healey, the bestseller of 2015 which I thought was a really good, thought-provoking read.
(1) I’ve chosen four picture prompts this month, starting with the one I chose for the masthead this month – the pirate ship! Where could this be? The Caribbean? Africa? A Pacific Island? No! This was the sight that greeted me and a friend as we took a cold, brisk walk recently around Ruislip Lido to the west of London! The ship is still in the construction stage so I’m dying to see what it looks like finished, full of little pirates and perhaps Johnny Dep too! There’s definitely a story there!
(2) I’m writing this looking out onto a snow blizzard so I thought I’d stick to just one wintry picture! Why is this person out in such weather? Where are they going? Did they want to go out or is this a reluctant journey?
(3) What’s the look on this young woman’s face – apprehension, puzzlement, concern? What’s the building she’s leaving? What does the day hold for her?
(4) And just who are these flowers for? A bride? A funeral? A birthday? Is that the giver or the recipient? How will they be received?
These three pictures are from Unsplash – one of my favourite websites for an inspirational break in writing!
(1) I came across this interesting article about what the good thriller writer needs to know. Even if thrillers aren’t particularly your genre, this piece has plenty of good advice. Click here.
(2) If you want a short break from your own writing, take a look at this website – optimistic ways of looking at rejection plus some hard-hitting advice from famous authors.
I’ve recently read two novels that I might have easily glossed over had they not been given or loaned to me. But I am really grateful for the gift and the loan because they took me to authors and genres that I didn’t think I had time for.
Hag-Seed by Margaret Atwood is a modern take on The Tempest. The director of a drama festival is cruelly sacked on the eve of what should be his greatest triumph. He plans his revenge. (Thank you, June)
I am, I am, I am by Maggie O’Farrell is her beautifully written story of the 17 times death brushed past her, so close she could feel its touch. (Thank you, Angela)
I’ll try to update the competition page later this month after I get my boiler to provide heating and hot water!
Stay warm and happy writing!
February 2018 blog
There’s just one word that sums up January 2018 for me – flu!
I was completely and utterly kiboshed by the virus that bypassed the latest jabs and attacked so many people here in the UK. With a cold, most of us are able to carry on in some way or another. With flu? Just not possible. So I spent a lot of time sleeping and when awake, day-time TV and box sets kept me as entertained as my brain needed. As I began to feel better, I started noticing things about the programmes I was watching, relating them to writing. One aspect that struck me above all others was:
The use of STATUS and POWER
Watch any drama on television and you will soon realise that the characters are all part of one or more hierarchies: it may be the most basic of all ie a family. Or it could be a business, or a school, or a social group, or a situation. Each person will be a member of different groups and will, probably, have a different status in each of the groups they belong to.
Status and power are determined by a number of different factors, including class, race, sex, gender, religion, wealth, age, education, employment, fame, experience and marital status.
Whenever we talk about status, and in particular whether someone is of high or low status, we are making a judgement. Some people regard doctors as a higher status than footballers – others may disagree. The oldest child in a family might consider him/herself to be of a higher status than their siblings. A younger sibling may disagree because the eldest has a quick temper and bad judgement.
When two characters are up against each other, they will each will have their own agenda: each trying to raise their own status in relation to the other person. To change their own status, one character must bring about a change in someone else’s. For one person to rise, another has to fall, even if they don’t admit or show it.
Power can shift for many reasons: a policeman may have the upper hand when he goes to arrest a burglar he has caught red-handed; the power changes when the burglar produces a gun.
If you watch a television series for long enough (and flu will definitely let you do that!) you’ll see that the status between any two characters will change many times over the course of a number of episodes. And it is often the quest for power, for a higher status, that is at the heart of a lot of drama.
Thinking of your story in terms of change of power and/or status is another way of planning your writing and a good way of introducing that absolutely vital ingredient – conflict.
Have a look at the story you are currently working on. Can you make changes in the status and power of your main characters more apparent to emphasise the conflict?
And if you’re wondering which particular box set I got hooked on, then I’ll confess: it was Suits. I thought I’d watch one episode, just to see Meghan Markle. And I got hooked. I’m now onto Series 5 and I’m beginning to think it’s almost as good as The Good Wife. If you like American law dramas, then I definitely recommend it.
I’ve two to recommend this month:
Firstly, Sue Healy’s here
Sue and I met on a mentorship programme back in 2013 and even then I was impressed with the amount and variety of her work. If you look at her website, you’ll see just how successful she’s been, particular in recent years. Her play Imaginationship is currently on at the Finborough Theatre in London. Her latest blog gives some really good advice about building a character profile: don’t ask yourself the usual questions, think outside the box. Thank you, Sue, and best wishes for the play.
Secondly, writer and blogger Jerry Jenkins collected the thoughts of 41 writers on what advice they would have given to themselves when they were starting out. A good read and some interesting ideas. Click here
Writing prompts for February
Wishing you a good February – healthwise and writing-wise.
A New Year and I’m already beset with worries about resolutions. Should I join the gym – again? Shall I buy that watch that will monitor my fitness? Do I really need a new laptop? How many words should I aim for each day?
I know some people hate them but I actually find New Year Resolutions helpful and motivating. I even make a point of checking up on them every four months – as I do for my writing students so they can’t escape them either!
But for New Year Resolutions to work they must be:
REALISTIC and MEASURABLE.
If you are working full-time and have a family to look after, then writing the next block-buster in twelve months probably isn’t going to work. But outlining the plot, doing character profiles and writing six chapters probably will.
If you like writing stories for your local writing group, then perhaps you could push yourself a little further in 2018 and decide that you will enter six outside competitions this year.
If you feel you’ve reached an impasse with your writing (some people call that Writer’s Block), perhaps changing genre might help. Set yourself the target of researching a new genre, such as steampunk or playwriting or writing for children, and writing at least one piece in that new genre.
Me? I’m going to tell you my resolutions for 2018 so I can’t hide!
I heard a really inspiring feature on Radio Four’s Today programme just after Christmas about prisoners who are teaching fellow inmates to read. Volunteers from The Shannon Trust go in to guide the teachers once a month while the teachers and pupils meet up to five times a week, for 20 minutes each time.
Apparently half of our prison population of 85,000 have a reading age of 11 or under. When poet and writer Ben Okri was guest editor on the Today programme, he went into HMS Isis in Thamesmead South East London and spoke to some of the prisoners involved in the scheme.
These are some of their comments:
One prisoner learned so he could read to his children. “I have been given what I needed to encourage me to stay out of trouble when I get outside,” he said. “I completed a book challenge and as my prize I asked for two books to read to my children. I hope that me learning will encourage my children to do it too.”
It’s not only prisoners who didn’t learn to read when they were at school. I’ve spoken to a number of adults who grew up in rural parts of Ireland. When it came to harvest-time, they were needed to help out on the farm – no argument! But their education suffered and it’s only years later, perhaps when they get on well in a job or their children want help with homework, that they suddenly find they need the skills of reading and writing.
This is the link to the Ben Okri feature: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p05s5pl3
And to the Shannon Trust at work in Swansea prison:
Asking for help
One of the best experiences I’ve had was volunteering at a Basic Skills centre in Harlington, West London, some 18 years ago now. We helped people of all ages, cultures, jobs and backgrounds, all of whom had had the courage to say “I can’t read. Can you help me?” To see the progress they made, little by little, week by week, was truly inspiring and humbling.
That experience got me into teaching and I haven’t stopped since! I’ve taught computer skills to “silver surfers” and it’s such a joy to see the smiles on their faces when they learn to put photos into their Word documents or do a calculation in Excel! Then I got a job teaching Creative Writing and I just love it! I am so amazed at the ideas people come up with. Having been a journalist and editor, I feel I can help with the basics: grammar, spelling, punctuation and sentence construction, plus story structure, plotting, characterisation and motivation. But all my students leave me way behind with their creative ideas!
I’ve recently put my name forward to be a “listener” at a local junior school – going in once a week to listen to individual read out loud. I’m so looking forward to the new term in 2018 and to meeting the youngsters who may well be our writers of the future.
You can find out more about this scheme here: http://www.schoolreaders.org
I’ve come across a few tips from authors that I thought might be worth passing on for the New Year.
Happy Writing for 2018 and do let me know how you are getting on.
First a catch-up on various happenings during November.
Writing advice: I faced a dilemma this week which got me thinking writing-wise!
I’ve recently been going down to a local swimming pool early each morning, hoping to avoid the rush. One morning, there was just one person in the pool so I had the choice of all the lanes. Should I choose fast, slow or “other”? I was tempted by the fast lane but I knew as soon as I got going, some fit, young, lithe and very fast male would be getting in my way!
So I chose the slow lane and then comfortably fitted around the other two people who eventually joined me. Yes, the fast, young…… male did turn up and proceeded to splash us all from the fast lane!
But it made me wonder about the use of the terms slow and fast. In comparison to what? If Ian Thorpe were to choose to swim slowly, he’d still be a hundred times faster than me.
If you describe something in your writing as beautiful, remember that is a totally subjective word ie it means something to the person (or character) who’s writing but possibly not the same to the reader. Instead of using such a word, why not try to describe what makes that person beautiful eg their smile, the light in their eyes, their caring attitude. Note I didn’t mention hair, lips, bone structure, makeup or figure – that sort of beauty is very much in the eye of the beholder!
Similarly with comparative adjectives and adverbs. An elderly person might well be moving more slowly than a younger adult but probably at a similar speed to a toddler. One exam question might be hard for one pupil but easy for another. It will very much depend on the circumstances of your character and how they relate to the other characters or events around them.
Prompts: Write your Christmas/winter/snow stories now and keep them for next year’s competitions.
Tips: I thought I’d pass on some Google tips from the company that looks after my computer. They send me regular emails about safety, viruses, hacks, backing up and all the things we know we should be doing! These aren’t necessarily writing-related but I just thought they could be helpful.
I hope you all have a most enjoyable festive time and that you receive some really good “writing” gifts – we writers can never have too many notebooks!
And if you have a spare ten minutes in between all the activities, why not start thinking of your Writing Resolutions for 2018? I’ll have some ideas for you next month.
What we can learn from television drama
There’s been a wealth of good drama on television over the past few months and in one of my classes recently, we discussed what we’d enjoyed but, more importantly, why. We tried to discount the great acting, scenery and film techniques to concentrate on the writing.
I was once told by a theatre director that good actors can always work well with good material but even good actors have a hard time with bad writing!
So the points we came up with included:
What I’ve also discovered:
Must get back to the writing!
I’m starting NaNoWriMo today! Really just to get back into the habit of writing after a bit of a break over the summer. I’ve sorted a plot for a 50,000-word novel, done character profiles and although there’s a little bit of historical research that I’ll probably need to do afterwards, I think I’m ready 🙂 I’ll let you know how I get on next month!
Below you’ll find Writing Tips; my Book Recommendation; Writing Prompts and an article on verbs.
It’s so easy to miss little mistakes and repetitions when editing and proof-reading.
This month’s book recommendation Two good friends of mine have co-written a novel and it’s just been published. It’s called QUOTA and is a thriller set in 2035 when Britain’s population has got too big for its resources. The Ministry of Life decrees how many years each family is allowed, to divide amongst its members.
This story really makes you think what might happen if the world’s population really does get out of control. Who will be the people making the decisions as to how we all survive, who lives and who dies?
Kate Appleby has just lost her husband in an accident on their farm. She receives the dreaded letter at his funeral, informing her that their life QUOTAS have been re-assessed. She’s desperate for help and has to choose between two men: a Ministry of Life official who was a colleague at university and a man who needs a kidney for his dying son.
You can buy a copy of QUOTA, paperback or Kindle version, here.
Pictures this month are from the wonderful Sculpture Park at Churt near Farnham in Surrey.
Or, study one of pictures and just see what ideas spring to mind.
This month’s Article on Creative Writing: Active and Passive verbs
Have you ever read through a piece or your own writing, or anyone else’s for that matter, and thought it a bit dull, a bit flat, even boring? One of the first things you might want to check is how many PASSIVE verbs you are using.
An ACTIVE verb is where the subject of the sentence is the person or thing that is doing the verb
eg She threw the coat away. The teacher shouted at the boys. My husband painted the lounge. Ice covered the pond.
A PASSIVE verb is where the subject of the sentence is the object of the verb
eg The coat was thrown away. The boys were shouted at by the teacher. The lounge was painted by my husband. The pond was covered by ice.
Passive verbs tend to distance your readers from the action and slow the story down. They can also sound rather bureaucratic and impersonal:
eg Your complaint has been investigated (Active: We have investigated your complaint); enquiries have been made (Active: we have made enquiries);
the letter will be signed by your manager (Active: Your manager will sign the letter)
There are also HIDDEN PASSIVE verbs that we probably use too much and don’t recognize them as such. These usually involve the verb to be
eg There was a bird singing in the garden. Active: A bird was singing in the garden.
There were two men fighting in the street. Active: Two men were fighting in the street.
I’m not at all advocating that you should NEVER use the passive voice but as a general rule, the fewer passive sentences the better. Don’t worry – you don’t have to count them! Microsoft Word has a wizard that will do that for you. With all the different versions of MS Word around, I can’t tell you exactly where this wizard will be fund – sorry! But you can try going to Review on the blue bar at the top of a Word document; then Spelling and Grammar; then Options; then Grammar and more settings; scroll down the list and click on Passive voice and click OK.
If this doesn’t work with your version, you might have Help button where you can type in Check passive voice or use a search engine.
And if you also check the box marked Readability statistics, this will show you the breakdown of your writing, like this:
Suggestion: check one of your pieces of writing: a short story, article or a chapter of a novel. See how many passive sentences you have and whether changing them to active verbs will improve the flow.
Have a good November!
OCTOBER 1st and for me, it really is time to get back writing. I took the summer off. Sometimes, if you just have too many things on your mind and too busy a schedule, the sensible thing is to concentrate on the priorities and return to writing when the time is right.
But where did the summer go? True, we’re still having the occasional brilliantly sunny and warm day. But there’s definitely an autumnal feel to the air. Trees are changing colour, leaves cover my garden and the nights are really closing in so early.
But, to quote the Bible and singer Pete Seeger, To everything there is a season and now is the time to:
I thought that last one might make you sit up! I’m not suggesting you enter the official competition to write 50,000 words in November. If you’re in the habit of writing a thousand or more words a day, then go for it! But some members of my writing groups do their own NaNoWriMo – setting themselves the target of writing 200 words (and upwards) every day of the month. If you have a writing buddy who’s game for the experience, exchange your 200 words each day by 6pm. By the end of the month, you’ll have 6,000 words – two or more short stories perhaps.
Writer’s Forum magazine always includes a ready-made chart for you: pin it up by your computer and fill in each day what you’ve been working on. Remember, planning, plotting and research count too!
ARE YOU SITTING COMFORTABLY? Some of you may remember that phrase from the BBC radio programme Listen with Mother which started back in the 1950s. What I’m asking now is Are you sitting comfortably while you are writing? So many of us use laptops, tablets and phones for our writing nowadays and, I’m guessing, rarely sit at a desk to do so. The trouble is, at some point in the future our bodies will start suffering. Lower back, neck, arm and wrist problems are the most common outcomes of continued poor posture.
1.Your back should be in an upright position, firmly supported by your chair back and/or cushions
2.Your keyboard should allow you to type with your forearms parallel to the floor
3.Your screen should, ideally, be an arm’s length away
4.Your middle of your screen should be at eye level; any lower and your neck will suffer.
I can already hear some of you saying “but I can’t have my laptop an arm’s length away and at eye level – I won’t be able to use the keyboard!” Too true. One answer is to have a separate keyboard and put your laptop on a sturdy pile of books to reach the right height. I bought a spare keyboard the other day – for all of £6.
So there really is no excuse. If you KNOW you are going to be using your laptop constantly for more than half an hour, I really do recommend you take a look at how to improve your work station. Then, if you’re sitting comfortably, you can begin.
The photo here shows how I’ve set up my work station at home: my monitor is on a shelf, an arm’s length away from my chair and I have raised the back of my keyboard very simply with a piece of wood which I find makes typing easier.
I’m delighted that my local Tesco’s has recently started a BOOK SWAP TABLE. Anyone can put books on the table and if you want to take one, you put a £1 in the charity collection tin. If you don’t already recycle your paperbacks, this is a good way of sharing and finding new authors. I’ve noticed quite a few A-level English Lit texts, complete with annotations! plus a few Classics, old children’s books, chick-lit and recipe books. But I’ve also discovered one writer new to me that I shall certainly follow up – R J Ellory. A Quiet Belief in Angels was that rare combination – a thriller that was really beautifully written.
WEBSITES AND COMPETITIONS
Here’s an article that I found interesting :
Ten Important Things Writers Often Omit from their scenes.
And a few competitions to keep you busy:
The Ruth Rendell Short Story competition: Click here
Words with Jam Short Story competition: Click here
The Poetry Society’s annual competition: Click here
This one closes at the end of October
A dozen ideas to get the creative juices flowing:
So, a new season, lots to do, I’m sitting comfortably ……
has been up and running for a year now and I’d like to thank all of you who have been in touch with comments, feedback, questions and suggestions. I haven’t been able to develop the website as much as I’d originally planned, due to family circumstances. So now, after a year, it’s time for a revamp.
For the foreseeable future, everything new will be here on the front page – blog, writing tips, prompts and recommendations. That way you can keep in touch once a month and see at a glance what’s there.
I’d very much like to add your comments to the site so I hereby make it a resolution to get in touch with my web design company to find out how to do just that!
I’ll keep the past year’s articles, prompts etc for a while and then they’ll disappear. I might put them and others into a handy-sized booklet – I’ll let you know if that materialises in the next year.
Are you a 500-words-a-day person or does it happen in fits and starts? I’ve been a bit of both over the past few months but one thing I’ve discovered is if I don’t write something every day, I don’t feel right. Something is missing and I haven’t had a good day. When I get back to it on a regular basis, I sleep so much better!
I’ve had to take a break from my classes in the past few months and talking to a couple of my writers recently, they say they’ve missed them – thank you – because they’ve got out of the writing habit and they need some ideas! I also think it’s because the groups themselves provide not only enjoyable social get-togethers but a collective motivation to write. All my groups are extremely supportive of each other’s writing, rather than competitive, and I feel this too is of immense benefit for everyone, me included.
Writing is so often a solo activity (I don’t like to say lonely because you should have all your characters keeping you company) that having one or more writing buddies you see regularly can provide a most welcome balance.
I’m still sending my novel out to agents, publishers and competitions but I’ve stopped writing the sequel. I came to a full-stop and decided to have a change. I feel sure I will return to it sometime, because I frequently think of my main character and what she could get up to next! In the meantime, I went back to an historical novel set in Ireland and finished it. Really happy with having done that but I’ve put it away and will leave it for a couple of months before looking at it with fresh eyes for the first edit. I’ve also written a radio play but the BBC WritersRoom isn’t accepting drama submissions until the end of the year so I’ve time for editing. And I’m currently in the early stages of planning a new novel. This one, unusually for me, will be contemporary so I won’t have to bury myself in books about life in the Middle East 2000 years ago!
I know writers of each camp who swear their method is the only way they can write. Non-planners just hate the thought of looking further ahead than the next page; planners can’t bear not knowing where they are going.
I’m definitely a planner and I have to know the major plot points of my story before I can start writing. I then use tables and charts for a variety of purposes:
But I know some of my writing friends find using charts like this far too clinical. “It’s like writing to a formula,” they say. They actually LIKE not knowing what it going to happen until the very moment they start typing.
Certainly there are pros and cons for each way of working but we are individuals and what works for me, may not for someone else. Do let me know how you work – it might inspire another writer to try a different technique once in a while.
If you run your own websites or create newsletters, you probably have a job finding copyright free images to use. Here’s a list of websites that offer such a service. But, please, check each one carefully before you use their pix.
For instance, if you go to the Bing website, you will need to go to the Filter button and then choose the category you want to find which images are totally free.
Don’t take any chances: I know of someone who used a photo from a website, thinking that no-one would notice. She was quickly contacted by the company owning the photo, telling her to take it down or risk legal action. You have been warned!
Regular readers will know I am a HUGE fan of historical novelist Philippa Gregory so it’ll be no surprise to hear that I am deeply ensconced in her latest book The Last Tudor. Right from the first page I was hooked and although I’m familiar with the famous historical characters, it’s the way in which Gregory makes them so real, their emotions ones that I recognise and can empathise with. She packs in a lot of historical facts too but always THROUGH the characters, showing not telling. A writing lesson on every page!